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160/365 – North Pole

North Pole definition

North Pole is situated in the norther hemisphere where the Earth’s axis of rotation meets the Earth’s surface. There is a big difference between Geographic North Pole and Magnetic North Pole.

The Earth’s North Magnetic Pole is the point on the Earth’s surface at which the Earth’s magnetic field points vertically downwards. Magnetic north pole location moves constantly with time. The location of magnetic north pole was defined at 82.7°N 114.4°W in 2005.

James Clark Ross was first who reached the North Magnetic Pole in June 1, 1831. The fact is that the Magnetic North Pole is physically a magnetic field south pole.

North Pole location

The North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean which constantly covered with shifting sea ice. The North Pole latitude is 90° North.

At the North Pole all lines of longitude converge there, so North Pole longitude can be defined as any degree value. Greenland is the closest land to geographic north pole (700 km / 440 mi away).

North Pole climate

North Pole weather is much warmer than in South Pole. It is situated in Polar climate zone. The average north pole temperature during winter time is -34°C (-30°F) and average North Pole summer temperature is 0°C (32°F).

The temperature of North Pole changes during last 20 years. Many scientists consider it as a result of global warming. The thickness of ice at the north pole is 3-4 meters.

History of North Pole exploration

The exploration of North Pole has a long history. It is known North Pole fact that the first man who cross Arctic Circle was Greek geographer and explorer Pytheas of Massilia at about 320 BC. So he is considered a first Polar explorer.

The first North Pole map was made by D. Gerasimov, Russian sailor, in the first half of XVI century. But nevertheless the main steps of North Pole discovery were made much later – in the beginning of the last century.

Explorers and enthusiasts tried to achieve North Pole using all possible ways – dog sleds and planes, dirigibles and nuclear icebreakers, skis and parachutes.

It is considered that the first person in the North Pole was Robert Peary. He claimed that he reached the North Pole on April 6, 1909 together with Matthew Henson and four Inuit men. However, it is still controversial north pole fact.

People, who accompanied Peary during the journey, weren’t trained in navigation and couldn’t independently confirm his own navigational results. The other American explorer Frederick Albert Cook stated to have reached the North Pole on April 21, 1908, but he didn’t provide the convincing proof.

Source: http://www.bestrussiantour.com/incredible/north_pole/facts

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