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241/365 – Partition of India

The Partition of India was the partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics. This led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan) and the Union of India (later Republic of India) which took place in 1947, on August 14 and 15, respectively.

The partition of India was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj. It resulted in a struggle between the new states of India and Pakistan and displaced up to 12.5 million people in the former British Indian Empire, with estimates of loss of life varying from several hundred thousand to a million.

The violent nature of the partition created an atmosphere of mutual hostility and suspicion between India and Pakistan that plagues their relationship to this day.

The partition included the geographical division of the Bengal province of British India into East Bengal, which became part of the Dominion of Pakistan (from 1956, East Pakistan).

West Bengal became part of India, and a similar partition of the Punjab province became West Punjab (later the Pakistani Punjab and Islamabad Capital Territory) and East Punjab (later the Indian Punjab, as well as Haryana and Himachal Pradesh).

The partition agreement also included the division of Indian government assets, including the Indian Civil Service, the Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian railways and the central treasury, and other administrative services.

In the aftermath of the partition, the princely states of India, that had been left alone by the Indian Independence Act 1947 to choose whether to accede to India or to Pakistan or to remain outside them, were all incorporated into one or another of the new dominions, in all cases by the ruler signing an instrument of accession.

The choice between India and Pakistan to be made by Jammu and Kashmir led to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 immediately after the partition and they became part of the disputed territory. Other wars and conflicts between India and Pakistan have continued since then.

As a result of the Bangladesh Liberation War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, East Pakistan became the independent state of Bangladesh in 1971.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partition_of_India

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Categories: General Knowledge, History
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