Home > General Knowledge > 355/365 – Bitter Gourd

355/365 – Bitter Gourd

Momordica charantia, called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash in English, Karavella in Sanskrit and Karela in Hindi and Urdu, Karla in Bengali and Marathi, Pavakai (பாகற்க்காய்) in Tamil, Hagala kayi in Kannada, Kakarakaya in Telugu, kudhreth narhy in Turkish, is a tropical and subtropical vine of the family Cucurbitaceae, widely grown in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean for its edible fruit, which is among the most bitter of all fruits.

Its many varieties differ substantially in the shape and bitterness of the fruit. This is a plant of the tropics. Karela originated in India and it was carried to China in the 14th century.

This herbaceous, tendril-bearing vine grows to 5 m. It bears simple, alternate leaves 4–12 cm across, with three to seven deeply separated lobes.

Each plant bears separate yellow male and female flowers. In the Northern Hemisphere, flowering occurs during June to July and fruiting during September to November.

The fruit has a distinct warty exterior and an oblong shape. It is hollow in cross-section, with a relatively thin layer of flesh surrounding a central seed cavity filled with large, flat seeds and pith.

The fruit is most often eaten green, or as it is beginning to turn yellow. At this stage, the fruit’s flesh is crunchy and watery in texture, similar to cucumber, chayote or green bell pepper, but bitter.

The skin is tender and edible. Seeds and pith appear white in unripe fruits; they are not intensely bitter and can be removed before cooking.

As the fruit ripens, the flesh (rind) becomes tougher, more bitter, and too distasteful to eat. On the other hand, the pith becomes sweet and intensely red; it can be eaten uncooked in this state, and is a popular ingredient in some Southeast Asian salads.

When the fruit is fully ripe, it turns orange and mushy, and splits into segments which curl back dramatically to expose seeds covered in bright red pulp.

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