Archive for the ‘Facts’ Category

363/365 – Indian Rupee

August 27, 2012 Leave a comment

The Indian rupee (sign: ; code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India.

The modern rupee is subdivided into 100 paise (singular paisa), although this division is now theoretical; as of 30 June 2011, coin denominations of less than 50 paise ceased to be legal tender.

Banknotes are available in nominal values of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 rupees. Rupee coins are available in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 100 and 1000; of these, the 100 and 1000 coins are for commemorative purposes only; the only other rupee coin has a nominal value of 50 paise, since lower denominations have been officially withdrawn.

The Indian rupee symbol (officially adopted in 2010) is derived from the Devanagari consonant “र” (Ra) with an added horizontal bar.

The symbol can also be derived from the Latin consonant “R” by removing the vertical line, and adding two horizontal bars (like the symbols for the Japanese yen and the euro).

The first series of coins with the rupee symbol was launched on 8 July 2011.

The Reserve Bank manages currency in India.The Reserve Bank derives its role in currency management on the basis of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.

Recently RBI launched a website Paisa-Bolta-Hai to raise awareness of counterfeit currency among users of the INR.


Categories: Facts, General Knowledge

356/365 – Islam Principles

August 20, 2012 Leave a comment

Monotheism: Islam, as its name means, is peace and the call for full submission to God, the one and only one, with no partner, no son, no father, no companion, no resemblance. This full submission to God leads to peace in yourself and between yourself and the universe that you are part of it.

Muhammad prophecy: Prophet Muhammad is God messenger and prophet to call for Islam.

Quran holy book: Quran, Islam holy book, was revealed by God to Prophet Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. Quran is the text of God holy words that remained without single letter alteration or addition since Quran revelation to prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) until present and will remain as such until (with God promise) the Day of Judgment. See related question, below, on why Quran was revealed.

Sunnah: Prophet Muhammad sayings, doings, and practices that are recorded and authenticated by sincere early Muslims and followed up by Muslims.

Islam five pillars: These five pillars to be believed and followed up in by all Muslims. Denying any of them intentionally and knowingly by any Muslim gets him/her out of Islam faith. See related question, below, on Islam faith pillars.These five pillars are: 1) witness that no god except the one and only one God (Allah) and Muhammad is his messenger and prophet, 2) performing praying (Salat), 3) pay the alms giving (Zakat), 4) fasting Ramadan (Sawm), 5) and doing pilgrimage (Hajj) by who can afford it.

Faith Principles: To have faith in: God (Allah)  God Angels  God holy books (including Psalms, Torah, the Bible, and Quran)  God prophets (including Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad; peace upon them)  day of Judgment  Destiny

Muslim conduct: To follow the Islam morals guided by the Quran and Prophet Muhammad Sunnah.

Good deeds: Muslim is not only commanded to perform ritual worships but also, and equally important, to do good deeds for the benefit of oneself, family, community, and humanity.

No religion compulsion: You are created free and you have full choice to believe in the religion and principles that you find them correct. Only God, the Creator and the All-Knowing, will judge your choice on the day of Judgment then, in the other eternal life, you go either to Hell or to the Paradise (with God mercy).

Cooperation for mankind goodness: God created people in different races, colors, peoples and tribes, and cultures not to live in conflicts but to compete in doing the good and to cooperate in piety and for mankind benefit.


Categories: Facts, General Knowledge

352/365 – Ashoka Chakra

August 16, 2012 Leave a comment

The Ashoka Chakra is a depiction of the Buddhist Dharmachakra, represented with 24 spokes. It is so called because it appears on a number of edicts of Ashoka, most prominent among which is the Lion Capital of Sarnath which has been adopted as the National Emblem of the Republic of India.

Ashoka chakra has 12 pairs of spokes. The most visible use of the Ashoka Chakra today is at the centre of the National flag of the Republic of India (adopted on 22 July 1947), where it is rendered in a Navy-blue color on a White background, by replacing the symbol of Charkha (Spinning wheel) of the pre-independence versions of the flag.

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, who later became India’s first Vice President, described the flag as follows:

Bhagwa or the saffron colour denotes renunciation or disinterestedness. Our leaders must be indifferent to material gains and dedicate themselves to their work.

The white in the centre is light, the path of truth to guide our conduct. The green shows our relation to (the) soil, our relation to the plant life here, on which all other life depends.

The “Ashoka Chakra” in the centre of the white is the wheel of the law of dharma. Truth or satya, dharma or virtue ought to be the controlling principle of those who work under this flag.

Again, the wheel denotes motion. There is death in stagnation. There is life in movement. India should no more resist change, it must move and go forward. The wheel represents the dynamism of a peaceful change.


Categories: Facts, General Knowledge

351/365 – Necktie

August 15, 2012 Leave a comment

A tie (British English) or necktie (American English) is a long piece of cloth worn for decorative purposes around the neck or shoulders, resting under the shirt collar and knotted at the throat.

Variants include the ascot tie, bow tie, bolo tie, zipper tie and the clip-on tie. The modern necktie, ascot, and bow tie are descended from the cravat.

Neck ties are generally unsized, but may be available in a longer size. Men and boys wear neckties as part of regular office attire or formal wear.

Neckties can also be worn as part of a uniform (e.g. military, school and waitstaff), whereas some choose to wear them as everyday clothing attire.

Neckties are traditionally worn with the top shirt button fastened, and the tie knot resting comfortably between the collar points.

However, it has become common in recent times for neckties to be worn as a casual item, tied loosely around the neck, nearly always with one or several buttons unfastened.


There is an older history of neckwear worn by soldiers (Chinese and Roman), whether as part of a uniform or as an emblem of belonging to a particular group, and some form of neckwear other than the outdoor scarf can be traced intermittently through the centuries.

The modern necktie taken up, then spread by, Western Europe traces back to the time of Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) when Croatian mercenaries from the Croatian Military Frontier in French service, wearing their traditional small, knotted neckerchiefs, aroused the interest of the Parisians.

Due to the slight difference between the Croatian word for Croats, Hrvati, and the French word, Croates, the garment gained the name “cravat”.

The new article of clothing started a fashion craze in Europe where both men and women wore pieces of fabric around their necks. In the late 17th century, the men wore lace cravats that took a large amount of time and effort to arrange.

These cravats were often tied in place by cravat strings, arranged neatly and tied in a bow. Therefore the international necktie day is celebrated on October 18 in Croatia and in various towns throughout the world, e.g. in Dublin, Tübingen, Como, Tokyo, Sydney and other towns.




Six- and seven-fold ties

Clip-on tie

Types of knots

There are four main knots used to knot neckties. In rising order of difficulty, they are:

four-in-hand knot. The four-in-hand knot may be the most common.

Pratt knot (the Shelby knot)

half-Windsor knot Windsor knot (also erroneously called the “double-Windsor” or, redundantly, “full Windsor”).

The Windsor knot is the thickest knot of the four, since its tying has the most steps.


Categories: Facts, General Knowledge

339/365 – Birthday

August 3, 2012 Leave a comment

A birthday is a day or anniversary when a person celebrates his or her date of birth. Birthdays are celebrated in numerous cultures, often with a gift, party or rite of passage.

Although the major religions celebrate the birth of their founders (e.g., Buddha’s Birthday), Christmas – which is celebrated widely by Christians and non-Christians alike – is the most prominent example.

In contrast, certain religious groups, as is the case with Jehovah’s Witnesses, express opposition to the very idea of celebrating birthdays.

Legal conventions

In most legal systems, one becomes a legal adult on a particular birthday (often between 14 and 21[2]), and reaching age-specific milestones confers particular rights and responsibilities.

At certain ages, one may become subject to military conscription or become eligible to enlist in the military, to marry without parental consent, to vote, to run for elected office, to legally purchase (or consume) alcohol and tobacco products, to purchase lottery tickets, or to obtain a driver’s license.

Birthday traditions

In many portions of the world an individual’s birthday is celebrated by a party where a specially made cake, usually decorated with lettering and the person’s age, is presented.

The cake is traditionally studded with the same number of lit candles as the age of the individual, or a number candle representing their age. The celebrated individual will usually make a silent wish and attempts to blow out the candles in one breath; if successful, it means the wish will be granted.

In many cultures, the wish must be kept secret or it won’t “come true”. Presents are bestowed on the individual by the guests appropriate to his/her age.


331/365 – Elevator

There are many myths and misconceptions about elevators. This is because the majority of all elevator equipment is hidden from public view, which thus leaves much to the imagination of a passenger.

The following are some of the most common myths and their corresponding truths:

MYTH – Many people believe elevators are held up by only one rope that can break, leaving passengers in a free falling car.

TRUTH – Elevators are supported by multiple steel cables. Each cable alone can support a fully loaded car. The only elevator fall due to a complete cable system failure occurred during the 1940’s when an airplane crashed into the empire state building and severed all the cables on a particular elevator.

MYTH – Some people believe that an overcrowded elevator will fall.

TRUTH – An overloaded car will normally not move. The doors will stay open and a buzzer may ring until enough people get off of the elevator to reduce the weight.

MYTH – Some people have claimed that they have been in an elevator that fell several floors and then “caught itself”.

TRUTH – This feeling is a mystery. Elevator experts believe people may think this has happened as a result of the following: They boarded an elevator that was traveling in the opposite direction they thought it was traveling. They saw the elevator floor indicator lights flash by quickly which gave the visual impression of falling.

MYTH – Some people believe the hall doors will open when an elevator is not there.

TRUTH – The elevator is designed so that the car controls the opening of the hall door. When the car arrives at a landing, the car door engages the hall door and the car door operator then opens both sets of doors. If the car is not at the landing, it cannot trigger the hall doors to open.

MYTH – Some people believe that if an elevator is stuck between floors that they are in danger of falling and should try to get out.

TRUTH – Attempting to leave the car on your own could result in serious injury. Elevator cars are designed to be “safe rooms”, and the safest place is inside the car. You should ring the alarm and utilize the emergency telephone if the elevator is equipped with one. You should only leave the car with the assistance of professional rescue personnel.


Categories: Facts, General Knowledge

318/365 – KWMC

Koyambedu boasts of having one of Asia’s largest perishable goods market complex called the “Koyambedu Wholesale Market Complex (KWMC)”.

The KWMC spreads over an area of 295 acres (1.19 km2). Inaugurated in 1996, the KWMC consists of more than 1,000 wholesale shops and 2,000 retail shops.

It abuts Poonamalee High Road and Nesapakkam Road and can be easily accessed from all parts of City. In Phase-I, the Wholesale Market for Perishables have been developed in an area of around 70 acres (280,000 m2) by constructing 3,194 shops.

The market has two blocks for vegetable shops and one each for fruit and flower shops. In Phase-II, a textile market and in Phase-III, a food grain market is planned to be developed in the complex.

The food grain market will be built on a seven to eight acres of land belonging to the Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority, adjacent to the Koyambedu fire service station and opposite the vegetable market, and will have about 500 shops.

The market has over 100,000 visitors daily.   The Basic Infrastructure and Amenities Promotion Committee has approved an allocation of Rs.336.3 million for augmentation and maintenance of the infrastructure, including stormwater drain network, in the market complex.

The Market Management Committee will carry out the work which includes creation of new stormwater drains over 9 km long, widening of roads and concretisation of a 350-m road connecting Gates 7 and 14, which is being used by heavy vehicles to carry perishables to the market complex.

A bio-methanation plant at the market complex set by Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority was inaugurated in 2006 at a cost of 55 million to generate power from vegetable and fruit waste collected from the wholesale market.


Categories: Facts, General Knowledge, Place